Liquefactive necrosis is type of cell death in which Necrotic tissue that becomes liquefied, enzymatic lysis of cells and protein results in liquefaction. There is tissue transformation into liquid viscous mass. Liquefactive necrosis is often associated with focal bacterial or fungal infections because microbes stimulate the accumulation of inflammatory cells and the enzymes of leukocytes digest (“liquefy”) the tissue.
What is liquefacation?
Liquefacation: liquefaction is turning into a more liquid like state for example liquefactive necrosis in pathology or liquefaction as parameter in semen analysis in medical sciences.
What is necrosis?
NECROSIS is death of large groups of cells followed by acute inflammation due to some underlying pathologic process; never physiologic. Necrosis is associated with loss of membrane integrity and leakage of cellular contents culminating in dissolution of cells, largely resulting from the degradative action of enzymes on lethally injured cells. The leaked cellular contents often elicit a local host reaction called inflammation.
Pathology of liquefactive necrosis:
In liquefactive necrosis the necrotic tissue or affected cell is completely digested by hydrolase enzymes results in liquid soft lesion consist of pus and fluid of necrotic tissue. Liquefactive necrosis is seen in bacterial or, occasionally, fungal infections, because microbes stimulate the accumulation of inflammatory cells and the enzymes of leukocytes (white blood cells) digest (liquefy) the tissue dead leulocytes remains as creamy yellow coloured pus. For obscure reasons, hypoxic death of cells within the central nervous
System due to ischemia often evokes liquefactive necrosis in other tissues this ischemia cause coagulative necrosis. Whatever the pathogenesis, the dead cells are completely digested, transforming the tissue into a liquid viscous mass. Eventually, the digested tissue is removed by phagocytes. If the process was initiated by acute inflammation, as in a bacterial infection, the material is frequently creamy yellow and is called pus.
Gross appearance of tissue is in liquid form and creamy yellow because of pus. Microscopically there is inflammatory cells with numerous neutrophils.
Causes of liquefactive Necrosis:
liquefactive necrosis is caused by bacterial or fungal infections which produces hydrolytic enzymes and white blood cells which lysis and liquefy the infected tissue and liquefactive necrosis occurs. in brain tissue ischemia leads that inflammatory and lysis of brain tissue.
Examples of liquefactive Necrosis
- Brain inlarclion: Proteolytic enzymes f r om microglial cells liquefy the brain.
- Abscess—Proteolytic enzymes from neutrophils liquefy tissue. This pattern is the reaction to acute tissue damage, characterized by increased vascular permeability and leukocytic infiltration, predominantly of neutrophils. The neutrophils are attracted to the site of infection by release of chemoattractants from the “pyogenic” bacteria and host cells. Neutrophil enzymes cause liquefactive necrosis.
- Pancreatitis—Proteolytic enzymes f r om pancreas liquefy parenchyma.
- Pylonephritis-The characteristic histologic feature of acute pyelonephritis is liquefactive necrosis with abscess formation within the renal parenchyma.
See also coagulative necrosis from our site..